Seborrheic dermatitis is a superficial fungal disease of the skin, which occurs in areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is believed that there is an association between Malassezia yeasts and seborrheic dermatitis. This may be due, in part, to an abnormal or inflammatory immune response to these yeasts. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by poorly defined scaling and erythematous patches.
It can be associated with pruritus and mainly affects areas rich in sebum, such as the scalp, face, upper chest and back. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, some postulate that the condition is the result of colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradicating the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults.
Characteristic symptoms: peeling, erythema and itching occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, armpit and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of lesions. Skin changes are thought to be the result of an inflammatory response to a common cutaneous organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body.
Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents, such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, should be used only for short periods. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be instructed to start treatment with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical (short-term) corticosteroids can be used as second-line agents for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. Doctors don’t know the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis.
The cause may be different in infants and adults. It usually appears in infants and disappears before puberty. Another cause may be a fungus. It is present in the skin in small amounts.
Sometimes the numbers increase and lead to skin problems. Considered a chronic form of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis appears on the body, where there are many oil-producing glands (sebaceous) such as the upper back, nose and scalp. There is no specific cure for seborrheic dermatitis, but there are many treatments available to minimize and control symptoms. When seborrheic dermatitis appears on the face, it tends to affect the lateral sides of the nose and nasolabial folds, as well as the eyebrows and glabella.
Although seborrheic dermatitis affects only 3 percent of the general population, the incidence in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can reach 85 percent. Drug treatment options for seborrheic dermatitis include antifungal preparations (selenium sulfide, pyrithione zinc, azole agents, sulfacetamide sodium and topical terbinafine) that decrease colonization by lipophilic yeasts and anti-inflammatory agents (topical steroids). For mild seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, over-the-counter dandruff shampoos that contain selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione, or coal tar can control symptoms at a fraction of the cost of other treatments. In addition to itchy scalp, patients may complain of a burning sensation in the facial areas affected by seborrhea.
The range of treatments for seborrheic dermatitis can be overwhelming for patients, but a pharmacist can help find the right therapy or advise them when consultation with a dermatologist is warranted. The etiology of seborrheic dermatitis remains unknown, although many factors, including hormonal factors, have been implicated. The mainstays of treatment for facial seborrheic dermatitis are topical antifungals, corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. The treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in adolescents is identical to that in adults11; the main objectives are to reduce the visible signs of the condition and reduce pruritus and erythema.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory dermatological condition that usually occurs in areas of the body with a high density of sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face, chest, back, armpit, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis usually affects areas of the skin where the sebaceous glands appear very frequently and are most active. People with central nervous system disorders (Parkinson’s disease, cranial nerve palsy, major trunk palsy) also appear to be prone to the development of seborrheic dermatitis, tend to develop a more extensive disease, and are often refractory to treatment. .